Notes and References
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Acts of the Apostles
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Acts Chapter 25 n 26
PAUL SPEAKS BEFORE GOVERNOR FESTUS AND KING AGRIPPA
Felix is no longer governor, whom imprisoned Paul for two full years. Festus now enters as governor. It is approximately 60 AD, 31 years after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Nero is Caesar at this time in Acts.
1Now when Festus was come into the province, after three days he ascended from Caesarea to Jerusalem.
2Then the high priest and the chief of the Jews informed him against Paul, and besought him,
3And desired favour against him, that he would send for him to Jerusalem, laying wait in the way to kill him.
4But Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at Caesarea, and that he himself would depart shortly thither.
5Let them therefore, said he, which among you are able, go down with me, and accuse this man, if there be any wickedness in him.
You can see God's hand in the refusal to hand over Paul to the Jews. Festus is not a pushover. He is the man in authority and will not be told what to do nor enticed by slick tongued devils. There must be a reason Felix still had this man under arrest at Caesarea.
6And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down unto Caesarea; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul to be brought.
First off I have put time words in bold font in the notes to emphasize things we just haply read over.
What is so important about this man Paul that the governor would see him the very next day of his arrival? Obviously the enthusiasm of the Jews to have him handed over to them piqued his interest about Paul.
7And when he was come, the Jews which came down from Jerusalem stood round about, and laid many and grievous complaints against Paul, which they could not prove.
8While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.
9But Festus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure, answered Paul, and said, Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before me?
10Then said Paul, I stand at Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest.
11For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.
12Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.
Paul said I am willing to die if there were offenses worthy of death, but not at the hands of the Jews. Paul's appeal to Caesar was the right of every Roman citizen. If it were up to Festus solely, he would have turned Paul over to the Jews, "wanting to do them a favor", but Paul's rights trumped even the power of the governor. Festus had no personal interest or real gain by going against Roman law, which is supreme over minor political matters. Paul also had some legal help that Festus could not ignore as well, keeping him legally in check, because there were other men present at this hearing, "the council" of which Festus conferred.
13And after certain days king Agrippa and Bernice came unto Caesarea to salute Festus.
Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible Acts 25:13
King Agrippa, the son of that Herod (surnamed Agrippa) who killed James the apostle, and was himself eaten of worms.
Adam Clarke's Commentary Acts 25:13
Bernice, or, as she is sometimes called, Berenice, was sister of this Agrippa, and of the Drusilla mentioned Acts 24. She was at first married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis, Jos. Antiq. lib. 19 cap. 9, s. 1; and, on his death, went to live with her brother Agrippa, with whom she was violently suspected to lead an incestuous life. Juvenal, as usual, mentions this in the broadest manner-Sat. 6 verse 155:
14And when they had been there many days, Festus declared Paul's cause unto the king, saying, There is a certain man left in bonds by Felix:
15About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against him.
16To whom I answered, It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver any man to die, before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, and have licence to answer for himself concerning the crime laid against him.
17Therefore, when they were come hither, without any delay on the morrow I sat on the judgment seat, and commanded the man to be brought forth.
18Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I supposed:
19But had certain questions against him of their own superstition, and of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive.
20And because I doubted of such manner of questions, I asked him whether he would go to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these matters.
21But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.
22Then Agrippa said unto Festus, I would also hear the man myself. To morrow, said he, thou shalt hear him.
23And on the morrow, when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with great pomp, and was entered into the place of hearing, with the chief captains, and principal men of the city, at Festus' commandment Paul was brought forth.
So Paul was defending himself before the most upright of leaders - NOT! Look at the company of people also present, the chief captains and principle leaders. He again lays out the gospel and his conversion and the power of God.
24And Festus said, King Agrippa, and all men which are here present with us, ye see this man, about whom all the multitude of the Jews have dealt with me, both at Jerusalem, and also here, crying that he ought not to live any longer.
25But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and that he himself hath appealed to Augustus, I have determined to send him.
Augustus here is not the name of the Caesar, but a title or to merely express emperor.
26Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord. Wherefore I have brought him forth before you, and specially before thee, O king Agrippa, that, after examination had, I might have somewhat to write.
27For it seemeth to me unreasonable to send a prisoner, and not withal to signify the crimes laid against him.
Here is the purpose of the hearing laid out plainly. Festus had no charges to send Paul to Nero with. He had nothing to write against Paul and this hearing might give him some advice from the men present. Paul was going to Caesar no matter what, the reason had not yet been concluded.
1Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Thou art permitted to speak for thyself. Then Paul stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself:
2I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews:
3Especially because I know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews: wherefore I beseech thee to hear me patiently.
4My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among mine own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews;
5Which knew me from the beginning, if they would testify, that after the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee.
6And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers:
7Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews.
8Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead?
9I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth.
10Which thing I also did in Jerusalem: and many of the saints did I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests; and when they were put to death, I gave my voice against them.
11And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities.
Strange cities = foreign cities outside of Judaea
12Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,
13At midday, O king, I saw in the way a light from heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round about me and them which journeyed with me.
14And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.
15And I said, Who art thou, Lord? And he said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.
16But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee;
17Delivering thee from the people (Jews), and from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee,
18To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.
Paul again recalls the conversion on the road to Damascus. We learn some more info here and regarding his experience in the three times it is told; Acts 9:3-19, 22:6-16, 26:12-18
- It was mid-day; Acts 26
- There was a bright light from heaven; Acts 9,22,26
- Brighter than the sun; Acts 26
- All the men with Paul saw it; Acts 9,22,26
- All the men fell to the ground; Acts 26
- The men heard the voice but did not hear what he said; Acts 9,26
- Jesus spoke to Paul in Hebrew; Acts 26
- Paul was blinded by the light; Acts 9,22,26
- Blind for 3 days; Acts 9
- All the men were afraid; Acts 22
- All the men were speechless; Acts 9
- Led by the hand to Damascus; Acts 9,22
Paul's mission is to:
- open their eyes
- turn them from darkness to light
- from the power of Satan unto God
- that they may receive forgiveness of sins
- inheritance among them (Jews) which are sanctified by faith that is in me (Jesus Christ)
19Whereupon, O king Agrippa, I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision:
20But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.
Paul followed the great commission of Jesus.
8But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.
Paul is not talking about the works required by Mosaic Law, but is referring to acts of love showing their repentance or change of heart. For a believer will produce fruit, maybe not how we would judge in the flesh, but people who truly believe in Jesus Christ can't help but start to change, only by the power of the Holy Spirit dwelling within them. This is the true miracle or the gift of sanctification and regeneration, thus being born again.
22But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,
23Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
21For these causes the Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to kill me.
22Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come:
23That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people (Jews), and to the Gentiles.
24And as he thus spake for himself, Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad.
25But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness.
26For the king knoweth of these things, before whom also I speak freely: for I am persuaded that none of these things are hidden from him; for this thing was not done in a corner.
27King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets? I know that thou believest.
28Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.
I want to key in on the word Christian. Christian was a term first used in Antioch, Acts 11:26, referring to those who followed after Christ. Then we only see it three times used in the New Testament; Acts 11:26, Acts 26:28, and 1 Pet 4:16. The Apostle James did not refer to the Jewish believers in Jerusalem as Christians, but as Jews which believe. Christian is a Gentile believer and the Jewish believer remained a Jew according to scripture.
29And Paul said, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost, and altogether such as I am, except these bonds.
30And when he had thus spoken, the king rose up, and the governor, and Bernice, and they that sat with them:
31And when they were gone aside, they talked between themselves, saying, This man doeth nothing worthy of death or of bonds.
32Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.
So the word of the Lord in Acts 23:11 will come to pass and Paul will go to Rome. Paul never spoke against the Law of Moses or any of the Old Testament scriptures throughout his ministry. He preached it did not pertain to the Gentile believers in any way shape or form. Christ came to set the Jew free from the handwriting of judgment of the law and the circumcision of the flesh, to a law of the Spirit and circumcision of the heart. He did nothing deserving of death and there were no convincing witnesses to condemn him according to Mosaic Law. Paul fully understood the purpose of the Old Testament scriptures, which in the end were pointing directly at the cross of Jesus Christ, His resurrection from the dead, and His ascension into heaven to be the only begotten son, the firstfruits of the dead to be raised, then afterward they that are Christ's. So we have a promise in:
1 Cor 15:22
For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.
If we are IN Christ, we too will have everlasting life!